The choice of electric car charger depends on the electric vehicle you will get (EV), the supply on your home panel and the types of chargers on the market. In this article you will find detailed information on the charger selection criteria that the electricians of the company 24gr.gr.
The choice of electric vehicle charger is influenced by various parameters, what should you look out for in the installation?
Types of benefits
In Greece, homes have the following power supplies:
- Single phase with general safety 32A – 8 KW
- Reinforced single phase with general safety 50A – 12KW
- Simple three phase with 3 general fuses 32A – 25KW
- Reinforced three phase with 3 general fuses 50A – 35KW
Difference between AC and DC
The electricity provided by HEDNO is alternating. While electric vehicles run on direct current (DC). Home car chargers transfer the AC power to the electric vehicle and it converts it to DC via its built-in on-board charger. This means that due to this conversion there are restrictions on charging time and maximum charging power.
Because the smallest household charger is 7KW, in single-phase installations, the use of the charger will be limited in terms of power. Simply put, with the use of other loads such as hobs, water heaters, etc. the supply will not be able to use the charger.
What charger should I choose?
As mentioned above, household chargers do not convert AC power to direct DC. As a result, this conversion takes place inside the on-board charger of the electric vehicle. This means that charging time is longer than a professional charger at a station or service station.
Also, since most vehicles currently produced have a maximum charging power of 7KW, it would not make sense to buy a home charger above 7KW. But because manufacturers are constantly improving the technology of batteries and on-boarch charger, it would make sense to install a larger charger if you want to withdraw your electric vehicle with a newer version in the future.
In addition you should select the charger power based on the existing installation as mentioned above.
Another parameter you need to keep in mind is that batteries wear out more at high charging speeds in AC. (AC). This is why many electric vehicle manufacturers program on-board chargers not to allow the use of electric vehicle (EV) below a certain limit. E.g. when the battery drops to 10%. Over time they allow more and more use of the battery.
How long does it take to charge an EV electric vehicle?
In the adjacent Infographic, the charging time depends on the capacity of the battery and the power of the charger.
The 3 types of chargers are shown (Level 1 with simple socket, Level 2 with household charger and Level 3 with professional charger)
At the same time we compare 3 different vehicles with different batteries.
Examples of charging time for an electric car charger
A Jaguar I-PACE has an OBC (on-board charger or built-in charger) with a maximum charge of 7.4KW . (KW measures power or consumption. 1 KW equals 1000 Watt. We say that an LED lamp has 13Watt power or consumption)
This means that this vehicle can charge at a maximum of 7.4KW with AC power (AC – Home)
Even if you have purchased an external charger at 22KW, the vehicle will not charge with more than 7.4KW.
A RENAULT ZOE can charge up to 22KW.
This limitation from the On-board Charger also affects the charging speed.
However, if we charge the above cars to my professional chargers, they transfer the DC current directly to the vehicle, then Jaguar can charge at 100Kw. This is called rapid charging. (Fast Charging ) Because it is not interfered by the On-board charger and does not delay the transfer of power by converting it from AC to DC in the vehicle.
With a 7KW charger, an electric vehicle (EV) will take about 6 hours to fully charge. While without a charger and with direct connection to a household outlet, it will take 18.5 hours. (Calculating that we have a vehicle with a capacity of 42 KWh). Respectively with a professional charger at a gas station, it can charge in 1 hour.
What extras do you need besides the charger?
In the European Union since January 2013 for charging electric cars are used mainly the connectors Type 2 in alternating / AC charging and CCS 2 for direct current / DC charging (combination of Type 2 with direct current terminals).
The reason there are different outlets is that there are different standards that determine the specifications of cables and charging sockets depending on the geographical area, and the requirements of each electrical network. More specifically, the types of sockets (charging sockets) can be divided into the following 4 main categories.
Types of sockets or Plugs
• Type 1 – Single phase connector (based on the SAE J1772 / 2009 standard), widely used in the markets of North America and Asia.
• Type 2 – Single-phase or Three-phase connector (based on standard VDE-AR-E 2623-2-2) covering the European market as well as South American countries.
• Type 3 – Single-phase or Three-phase connector similar to Type 2, which is accompanied by protective safety locks.
• Type 4 – Connectors used for ultra-fast DC charging and depending on the origin of the electric vehicle, there is the CHAdeMO or CCS (Combined Charging System) plug.
Therefore in Greece, the Type 2 plug is valid which has a circular shape consisting of a total of seven contacts. The specific contacts contain all the electrical phases (L1, L2, L3), the neutralization conductors (N) and ground (PE), as well as two contacts (PP, CP) through which the communication of the station with the car is achieved.
In the case of installing a 7KW electric home car charger, the owner is advised to install the protection devices indicated by IEC 61851-1 on the switchboard in order to protect its installation.
1) Installation of MCB 40A
This is a 40A or 63A bipolar fuse that protects the charger in the event of a short circuit.
2) Installation of lightning protection Type 1 or 2
Simply put, this is lightning protection that can damage the charger electronics and lose the warranty. Here I note that it can be combined with a voltage monitor that detects falling voltages and surges in the network. It can be combined with the protection of the whole familiar. For more information read the following article which analyzes the measures against lightning and surges
Electric shock protection
Installation of Leakage Relay type A.
It is recommended to install a type A RCD protection on the panel that will control the electric vehicle charger. Simply put, this is a leakage relay (also called a leakage circuit breaker or Differential Current Device (DRD) or anti-shock relay) which protects against electric shock in the event of a power leak.
In Greece, AC relays are mandatory for use in homes, while type A provides DC leakage current detection. (In Germany, this type is mandatory in homes)
Control via Wi-Fi or with RFID card
The electric car charger may have an authorized use system such as RFID cards for users. Simply put, some users can activate the charger using a card so that no one can access it. The charger can also be connected via Wi-Fi or via cable to a network so that the user can remotely monitor the charging process, any problems and consumption.
Available from most manufacturers.
Should some bureaucratic process be done?
The installation of an electric car charger or charging infrastructure in existing electrical installations must be notified to the network administrator by completing the appropriate connection / information form posted on the administrator’s website and varies depending on the level of supply connection.
In the event that the connection of the infrastructure requires an increase in the power of the existing supply, the consumer with the same form requests the increase. The form XT (low voltage) or MT (Medium Voltage) is submitted at the headquarters of the competent HEDNO area to which its installation belongs.
Especially for the connection of charging infrastructures of MT facilities of Attica, the form is submitted to the headquarters of the secondary region of Attica (DPA). The completion of the connection / information form and the co-submission of the required documents and data becomes mandatory according to article 27 of Law 4710/20120.
Which chargers are on the market?
Electric car charger by HAGER
Hager, an electrical equipment company, has 3 types of chargers. Both are for domestic use and the third for professional use. Witty.home at 7 or 22KW and witty.premium at the same KW with RFID card activation.
LEGRAND electric car charger
Legrand, an electrical equipment company, has 2 chargers in 5 variants depending on the plug and single-phase / three-phase current.
With a power range from 3.7 KW to 22KW. It also has accessories from fuses to remote control systems.
ABB electric car charger
ABB, an electrical equipment company, has home and professional electric car chargers. It has variants depending on single-phase / three-phase current, with common 230V or Type 2 plug, and with a power range from 3.7 to 22KW.
In addition, it has chargers with RFID capabilities and remote control and built-in surge protection or lightning protection.
Electric car charger by MC-CHARGERS
With additional RFID card usage, anti-graffiti protection and remote data control and monitoring